Salat (Prayer) According to Five Islamic Schools of Law

 

Key:

- "wajib" means obligatory

- "mustahabb" means recommended but not obligatory

- "tasbih" means saying "subhanallah wal-hamdu lillah wala ilaha illallah wallahu akbar"

- "takattuf" means holding one hand with the other while standing in salat.

- "qunut" means rasing both hands toward the sky and holding them in front of the chest or face and then reciting a supplication, like asking for forgiveness.

- "rakat" is a complete cycle of prayer. One begins with the standing and ends with the final prostration. The second would thus begin with another standing.

All schools agree that the number of prayers is 5.

Fajr - Dawn (2 rakat); Thuhur - Immediately after noon (4 rakat); Asr - Midway afternoon(4 rakat); Maghrib - After sunset(3 rakat); Isha - Night(4 rakat)

The Prophet, upon whom be peace said, "Every action is based upon intention. For everyone is what he intended. Whoever made the migration to Allah and His Prophet, then his migration is to Allah and His Prophet. Whoever's migration was for something of this world or for the purpose of marriage, then his migration was to what he migrated to." (Related by Muslim).

1. Opening Takbir: Imam Ali' (a.s.) related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The key to prayer is purity. What puts one into its invioable state is the takbir, and the tasleem releases one from it."

Takbir = saying "Allahu Abkar" and raising one's hands at the beginning of prayer. Tasleem = saying "Assalaamu alaikum" or "Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatulla" at the end of prayer.

2. Stading (Qiyam): One must stand during prayers, if he/she is physical able to do so. "Guard and preserve the prayers and the mid-most prayer, and stand for Allah with devotion." (2:238)

* If one cannot stand, he may pray sitting and use head movements for the bowing and prostration. If he cannot sit, he may lay himself on his right side. If he cannot do this, he may lie on his back, and so on.

*For voluntary prayers, one can pray sitting even if he can stand.

 

 

Maliki

Shafi’I

Hanbali

Hanafi

Imami

Al-Fatiha (Opening Chapter of the Qur’an)

reciting Surat al-Fatihah is necessary in every rak'ah, without there being any difference in this regard between the earlier and later rak'ahs and between fard and mustahabb salats

The Shafi'is state: Surat al-Fatihah is wajib in every rak'ah, without there being any difference in this regard between the first two rak'ahs and the other rak'ahs and between wajib and mustahabb salats. The bismillah is a part of the surah and cannot be omitted in any circumstance.

The Hanbalis consider al-Fatihah to be wajib in even rak'ah, and to recite a surah after it in the first two rak'ahs as mustahabb.

It is not compulsory to recite only Surat al-Fa-tihah in the daily obligatory salats, and anything recited from the Qur'an may take its place, because God the Exalted, says: 'Therefore recite of the Qur'an so much as is feasible' (73:20) It is valid to skip the bismillah because it is not a part of any surah.

Reciting Surat al-Fatihah is necessary in the first two rak'ahs of every salat and no other surah can replace it.

But it is not wajib in the third rak'ah of maghrib and the last two rak'ahs of four-rak'ah prayers; rather, one has an option between it and tasbih, though even once is sufficient. It is wajib to recite another complete surah in the first two rak'ahs, and the bismillah is a part of the surahs which cannot be omitted in any circumstance.

Loudness of Prayers

Reciting aloud is mustahabb in the morning prayer and the first two rak'ahs of maghrib and 'isha' prayers.

The recitation should be aloud in the morning prayer and the first two rak'ahs of maghrib and 'isha' prayers; the remaining recitals are to be in a low voice.

The morning prayer and the first two rak'ahs of maghrib and 'isha' prayers are to be recited aloud.

Neither reciting aloud nor in a low voice are mustahabb, and a performer praying alone is free to recite in a voice that he alone can hear or in a voice hearable to others.

It is wajib to recite aloud only the surahs and not the other recitations in the morning prayer and the first two rak'ahs of maghrib and 'isha' prayers. except for the bismillah, the recitation in zuhr and asr prayers is to be done in a low voice in their first two rak'ahs and also in the third rak'ah of maghrib and the last two rak'ahs of 'isha' prayers.

Qunut

Qunut is to be recited only in the morning prayer.

The qunut is mustahabb only in the morning prayer, and is to be performed after rising from the ruku’ of the second rak’ah.

Qunut is to be recited in Salat al-watr and not in any other salat.

?

Qunut is mustahabb in the five daily prayers and its place is the second rak'ah after the recital of the surahs and before ruku'.

Takkatuf

Takattuf is valid in their opinion, though it is mustahabb to keep the hands hanging freely in the fard prayers.

Takattuf is not wajib but a sunnah for both the sexes, and its preferable form is to place the right hand palm on the back of the left hand between the chest and the navel and towards the left side.

Takattuf is a sunnah for both men and women and its preferable form is to place the right hand palm on the back of the left hand below the navel.

As to takattuf, it is masnun (a sunnah) but it is not wajib, and its preferable form is for a man to place the palm of his right hand on the back of his left hand, and for a woman to place her hands on her chest.

takattuf (putting hands over each other) renders the salat invalid (batil) because there is no explicit text (nass) in support of it. However, some of them say: Takattuf is haram and the one who does it has committed sin, though his salat is not invalid. A third group from among them observe: It is makruh (discouraged) and not haram.

Ru’ku (Bowing)

It is not obligatory to recite anything during ruku', though it is sunnah that the performer say: "Sub-hana Rabbl al-'azim.

It is not obligatory to recite anything during ruku', though it is sunnah that the performer say: "Sub-hana Rabbl al-'azim.

Obligatoryt say tasbih during ruku' and its formula in the opinion of the Hanbalis is "Subhana Rabi al-'azim

It is not obligatory to recite anything during ruku', though it is sunnah that the performer say: "Sub-hana Rabbl al-'azim.

Obligatoryt say tasbih during ruku' and its formula is Subhana Rabbi al-'azim wa bi hamdih" or just SubhanAllah" thrice.

The Hanafis say: It is not obligatory to return to the standing position after ruku', and it is sufficient, though makruh (discouraged), to perform sajdah (prostration) straight-away. The other schools consider it obligatory to return to the standing position and mustahabb to recite the tasmi', which is to say: "Sami 'allahu li man hamidah" (God hears one who praises Him). According to the Imamis, it is obligatory to stay motionless in this standing (qiyyam) too.

sujud (prostration) is obligatory twice in each rak'ah.

It is obligatory to lay only the forehead on the ground in sujud, and laying down the other parts is encouraged (mustahabb).

It is obligatory to lay only the forehead on the ground in sujud, and laying down the other parts is encouraged (mustahabb).

It is obligatory to lay on the ground all the seven parts while

performing sujud. It has been narrated from the Hanbalis that they add the nose to these seven, thus making them eight.

It is obligatory to lay only the forehead on the ground in sujud, and laying down the other parts is encouraged (mustahabb).

It is obligatory to lay on the ground all the seven parts while

performing sujud.

Tashahhud is at most recited twice in salat; the first, after the second rak'ah of zuhr, 'asr. maghrib and 'isha' prayers, which is not followed by taslim; the second in the last rak'ah of the two-, three-, and four- rak'ah prayers, which is followed by taslim. The Imamis and the Hanbalis state: The first tashahhud is obligatory. The remaining schools consider it mustahabb and not obligatory. The second tashahhud is considered obligatory by the Shafi'is, Imamis and Hanbalis, and mustahabb by the Malikis and Hanafis

Attahiyyatu lillah, azzakiyyatu lillah, attayyibatu assalawatu lillah. Assalamu alayka ayyuha annabiyyu warahmatu allahi wabarakatuhu, assalamu alayna wa 'ala 'abadi Allahi assaliheena, ash-hadu anna la ilaha illa Allah, wa ash-hadu anna muhammadan 'abduhu warasuluhu.

"Attahiyyatu almubarakatu assalawatu attayyibatu lillah, assalamu 'alayka ayyuha annabiyyu warahmatu allahi wabarakatuhu, assalamu alayna wa 'ala 'abadi allahi assalaiheena. Ash-hadu anna la ilaha illa Allah, wa ash-hadu anna sayyidana muhammadan rasulu Allah."

"Attahiyyatu lillahi wa-assalawatu wa-attayyibatu. assalamu 'alayka ayyuha annabiyyu warahmatu allahi wabarakatuhu, assalamu alayna wa 'ala 'abadi allahi assalaiheena. Ash-hadu anna la ilaha illa Allah, wahdahu la shareekalah, wa ash-hadu anna sayyidana muhammadan 'abduhu wa- rasuluhu. Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin."

"attahiyyatu lillahi wassalawatu wattayyibatu wassalamu 'alayka ayyuha annabiyyu warahmatullahi wabarakatuhu, assalamu 'alayna wa 'ala `abadillahi assaliheena, ash-hadu anna la ilaha illa Allah, waAsh-hadu anna Mohammmedan 'abduhu warasuluhu."

"Ash-hadu anna la ilaha illa Allah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, wa ash- hadu anna muhammadan 'abduhu wa-rasuluhu. Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa 'ali Muhammed."

Tasleem (Farewell)

Tasleem is obligatory.

Tasleem is obligatory.

Tasleem is obligatory.

The Hanafis do not consider it obligatory

The Imamis differ among themselves, a group considers it obligatory, while others regard it as mustahabb

Formula for Tasleem

Assalamu alaikum warahmatu allah

Assalamu alaikum warahmatu allah

Assalamu alaikum warahmatu allah

(obligatory twice)

Assalamu alaikum warahmatu allah

Tasleem (farewell) consists of two formulas; the first is: "Assalamu alaina wa 'ala 'abadi allahi assaliheen".

The second: "Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatu allahi wa barakatuh". One of them is obligatory. Hence if a person recites the former, the latter will be mustahabb, and if he recites the latter, he will stop at it

 

 

Sequence:

Proper Sequence (tartib) is obligatory between the different parts of salat. Hence the takbirat al-'ihram (opening takbir) must precede reciting (qira'ah), the qira'ah (recitation of Qur'an) must precede ruku' (bowing), the ruku' must come before the sujud (prostration), and so on.

 

Continuity:

Continuity (muwalat and tatabu', i.e. to occur one after another) is obligatory between the parts of salat and between the different portions of a part. Therefore, the reciting (qira'ah) must begin immediately after the takbirah and ruku' must similarly follow the qira'ah, and so on. The verses, words and letters must not be recited in a manner breaking continuity.

 

Sources:

1. Fiqh us-Sunnah: at-Tahara and as-Salah by As-Sayyid Sabiq. 1412/1991 American Trust Publications.

ISBN No. 0-89259-060-2

2. Prayer (Salat), According to Five Islamic Schools of Law By: 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah - Translated from the Arabic by Mujahid Husayn